Xanax Alprazolam 2mg
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg is indicated for the treatment of moderate or severe anxiety states and anxiety associated with depression. It is only indicated when the disorder is severe, disabling or subjecting the individual to extreme distress.
It is most commonly used in short-term management of anxiety disorders, specifically panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Other uses include the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, together with other treatments. GAD improvement occurs generally within a week. Alprazolam is generally taken by mouth
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg should not be used to treat mild anxiety, such as anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life. As the efficacy of Xanax in depression and in phobic or obsessional states has yet to be established, specific treatment may have to be considered.
250 micrograms (0.25 mg) to 500 micrograms (0.5 mg) three times daily, increasing if required to a total of 3 mg daily.
The elderly or in the presence of debilitating disease
250 micrograms (0.25 mg) two to three times daily to be gradually increased if needed and tolerated.
If side-effects occur, the dose should be lowered. It is advisable to review treatment regularly when taking Xanax Alprazolam 2mg and to discontinue use as soon as possible. Should longer term treatment be necessary, then intermittent treatment may be considered to minimize the risk of dependence.
The safety and efficacy of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg in children and adolescents below the age of 18 years have not been established. No data are available.
Method of administration
For oral use.
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg Treatment should be as short as possible. It is recommended that the patient be reassessed at the end of no longer than 4 weeks of treatment and the need for continued treatment established, especially in case the patient is symptom free. The overall duration of treatment should not be more than 8-12 weeks, including a tapering off process.
In certain cases extension beyond the maximum treatment period may be necessary; if so, it should not take place without re-evaluation of the patient’s status with special expertise. As with all Xanax Alprazolam 2mg, physicians should be aware that long-term use might lead to dependence in certain patients.
The optimum dosage of Xanax should be based upon the severity of the symptoms and individual patient response. The lowest dose which can control symptoms should be used. Xanax Alprazolam 2mg Dosage should be reassessed at intervals of no more than 4 weeks. The usual dosage is stated below; in the few patients who require higher doses, the dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects. When higher dosage is required, the evening dose should be increased before the daytime doses. In general, patients who have not previously received psychotropic medications will require lower doses than those so treated, or those with a history of chronic alcoholism.
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg Treatment should always be tapered off gradually. During discontinuation of alprazolam treatment, the dosage should be reduced slowly in keeping with good medical practice. It is suggested that the daily dosage of alprazolam be decreased by no more than 0.5 mg every three days. Some patients may require an even slower dosage reduction.
There is a reduced clearance of the drug and, as with other benzodiazepines, an increased sensitivity to the drug in elderly patients.
caution on taking Xanax Alprazolam 2mg
Caution is recommended when treating patients with impaired renal function or mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency.
In patients presenting with major depression or anxiety associated with depression Xanax Alprazolam 2mg and benzodiazepine-like agents should not be prescribed alone to treat depression as they may precipitate or increase the risk of suicide. Therefore alprazolam should be used with caution and the prescription size should be limited in patients with signs and symptoms of a depressive disorder or suicidal tendencies.
Safety and efficacy of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg have not been established in children and adolescents below the age of 18 years; therefore use of alprazolam is not recommended.
Benzodiazepines and related products should be used with caution in elderly, due to the risk of sedation and / or musculoskeletal weakness that can promote falls, often with serious consequences in this population.
It is recommended that general principle of using the lowest effective dose to be followed in elderly and /or debilitated patients to preclude development of ataxia or over-sedation. A lower dose is also recommended for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency due to risk of respiratory depression.
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg should be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse.
Risk from concomitant use of opioids
Concomitant use of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg and opioids may result in sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death. Because of these risks, concomitant prescribing of sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs such as Xanax with opioids should be reserved for patients for whom alternative treatment options are not possible.
The patients should be followed closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In this respect, it is strongly recommended to inform patients and their environment to be aware of these symptoms.
Use of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg may lead to the development of physical and psychic dependence upon these products. The risk of dependence increases with dose and duration of treatment; it is also greater in patients with a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Pharmacodependency may occur at therapeutic doses and/or in patients with no individualised risk factor. There is an increased risk of pharmacodependency with the combined use of several benzodiazepines regardless of the anxiolytic or hypnotic indication. Cases of abuse have also been reported.
Withdrawal symptoms: Once physical dependence has developed, abrupt termination of treatment will be accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. These may consist of headaches, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion, irritability and insomnia. In severe cases the following symptoms may occur: derealisation, depersonalisation, hyperacusis, numbness and tingling of the extremities, hypersensitivity to light, noise and physical contact, hallucinations or epileptic seizures.
During discontinuation of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg treatment, the dosage should be reduced slowly in keeping with good medical practice. It is suggested that the daily dosage of alprazolam be decreased by no more than 0.5 mg every three days. Some patients may require even slower dosage reduction.
Rebound insomnia and anxiety: a transient syndrome whereby the symptoms that led to treatment with a benzodiazepine recur in an enhanced form may occur on withdrawal of treatment. It may be accompanied by other reactions including mood changes, anxiety or sleep disturbances and restlessness. Since the risk of withdrawal phenomena/rebound phenomena is greater after abrupt discontinuation of treatment, it is recommended that the dosage be decreased gradually by no more than 0.5 mg every three days. Some patients may require an even slower dose reduction.
Duration of treatment
The duration of treatment should be as short as possible depending on the indication, but should not exceed eight to twelve weeks including tapering off process. Extension beyond these periods should not take place without re-evaluation of the situation.
It may be useful to inform the patient when treatment is started that it will be of limited duration and to explain precisely how Xanax Alprazolam 2mg dosage will be progressively decreased. Moreover it is important that the patient should be aware of the possibility of rebound phenomena, thereby minimising anxiety over such symptoms should they occur while the medicinal product is being discontinued. There are indications, that in the case of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg with a short duration of action, withdrawal phenomena can become manifest within the dosage interval, especially when the dosage is high. When benzodiazepines with a long duration of action are being used it is important to warn against changing to a benzodiazepine with a short duration of action, as withdrawal symptoms may develop.
Benzodiazepines may induce anterograde amnesia. The condition occurs most often several hours after ingesting the product and therefore to reduce the risk patients should ensure that they will be able to have uninterrupted sleep of 7-8 hours.
Psychiatric and paradoxical reactions for Xanax Alprazolam 2mg
Reactions like restlessness, agitation, irritability, aggressiveness, delusion, rages, nightmares, hallucinations, psychoses, inappropriate behaviour and other adverse behavioural effects are known to occur when using benzodiazepines. Should this occur, use of the medicinal product should be discontinued. They are more likely to occur in children and the elderly.
Some loss of efficacy to the hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines may develop after repeated use for a few weeks.
Episodes of hypomania and mania have been reported in association with the use of alprazolam in patients with depression.
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg are not recommended for the primary treatment of psychotic illness.
Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
The concomitant use of sedative medicines such as benzodiazepines or related drugs such as Xanax with opioids increases the risk of sedation, respiratory depression, coma and death because of additive central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect. The dosage and duration of concomitant use should be limited. Concomitant intake with alcohol is not recommended. Alprazolam should be used with caution when combined with CNS depressants.
Enhancement of the central depressive effect may occur in cases of concomitant use with antipsychotics (neuroleptics), hypnotics, anxiolytics/sedatives, antidepressant agents, narcotic analgesics, anti-epileptic drugs, anaesthetics and sedative antihistamines. In the case of narcotic analgesics enhancement of the euphoria may also occur leading to an increase in psychic dependence.
Pharmacokinetic interactions can occur when alprazolam is administered along with drugs that interfere with its metabolism.
Compounds that inhibit certain hepatic enzymes (particularly cytochrome P450 3A4) may increase the concentration of alprazolam and enhance its activity. Data from clinical studies with alprazolam, in-vitro studies with alprazolam and clinical studies with drugs metabolised similarly to alprazolam provide evidence for varying degrees of interaction and possible interaction with alprazolam for a number of drugs. Based on the degree of interaction and the type of data available, the following recommendations are made:
– The co-administration of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg with ketoconazole, itraconazole, or other azole-type antifungals is not recommended.
– The co-administration of nefazodone or fluvoxamine increases the AUC of Xanax Alprazolam 2mg by approximately 2-fold. Caution and consideration of dose reduction is recommended when alprazolam is co-administered with nefazodone, fluvoxamine and cimetidine.
– Caution is recommended when Xanax Alprazolam 2mg is co-administered with fluoxetine, propoxyphene, oral contraceptives, sertraline, diltiazem, or macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin, clarithromycin and troleandomycin.
Since alprazolam is metabolized by CYP3A4, inducers of this enzyme may enhance the metabolism of alprazolam. Interactions involving HIV protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir) and alprazolam are complex and time dependent. Short term, low doses of ritonavir resulted in a large impairment of alprazolam clearance, prolonged its elimination half-life and enhanced clinical effects. However, upon extended exposure to ritonavir, CYP3A induction offset this inhibition. This interaction will require a dose-adjustment or discontinuation of alprazolam.
Increased digoxin concentrations have been reported when Xanax Alprazolam 2mg was given, especially in elderly (>65 years of age). Patients who receive alprazolam and digoxin should therefore be monitored for signs and symptoms related to digoxin toxicity.
Sedation, amnesia, impaired concentration and impaired muscle function may adversely affect the ability to drive and use machines. If insufficient sleep occurs, the likelihood of impaired alertness may be increased.
These effects are potentiated by alcohol.
Patients should be cautioned about operating motor vehicles or engaging in other dangerous activities while taking Xanax Alprazolam 2mg.
This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient’s ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:
– The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive
– Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you
– It is an offence to drive while under the influence of this medicine
– However, you would not be committing an offence (called ‘statutory defence’) if:
o The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical or dental problem and
o You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine and
o It was not affecting your ability to drive safely.
The data concerning teratogenicity and effects on postnatal development and behavior following Xanax Alprazolam 2mg treatment are inconsistent. A large amount of data based on cohort studies indicate that first trimester exposure to benzodiazepine is not associated with an increase in the risk of major malformation. However, some early case-control epidemiological studies have found a twofold increased risk of oral clefts.
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg treatment at high dose, during the second and/or the third trimester of pregnancy, has revealed a decrease of fetal active movements and a variability of fetal cardiac rhythm.
When treatment has to be administered for medical reasons during the last part of pregnancy, even at low doses, floppy infant syndrome such as axial hypotonia, sucking troubles leading to a poor weight gain may be observed. These signs are reversible but they may last from 1 up to 3 weeks, according to the half-life of the product. At high doses, respiratory depression or apnoea and hypothermia in newborn may appear. Moreover, neonatal withdrawal symptoms with hyper excitability, agitation and tremor may be observed a few days after birth, even if no floppy infant syndrome is observed. The apparition of withdrawal symptoms after birth depends on the half-life of the substance.
Xanax Alprazolam 2mg should not be used during pregnancy unless the clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with alprazolam. If alprazolam is used during pregnancy, or of the patient becomes pregnant while taking alprazolam, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
If alprazolam treatment is necessary during last part of pregnancy, high doses should be avoided and withdrawal symptoms and/or floppy infant syndrome should be monitored in newborn.
Alprazolam is excreted in breast milk at low level. However, alprazolam is not recommended during breast-feeding.
As with other benzodiazepines, overdose should not present a threat to life unless combined with other CNS depressants (including alcohol). In the management of overdose with any medicinal product, it should be borne in mind that multiple agents have been taken.
Following overdose with oral benzodiazepines, vomiting may be induced (within 1 hour) if the patient is conscious or gastric lavage undertaken with the airway protected if the patient is unconscious. If there is no advantage in emptying the stomach, activated charcoal should be given to reduce absorption.
Special attention should be paid to respiratory and cardiovascular functions in intensive care.
Overdose of benzodiazepines is usually manifested by degrees of central nervous system depression ranging from drowsiness to coma. In mild cases, symptoms include drowsiness, mental confusion and lethargy, in more serious cases, symptoms may include ataxia, hypotonia, hypotension, respiratory depression, rarely coma and very rarely death.
Flumazenil may be useful as an antidote.